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An alphabetical nomenclature (A, B, C, D, E. ) is generally used to designate the apoproteins. The varying composition of these elements determines the density, size, and electrophoretic mobility of each particle. These factors in turn have been used for the clinical and biochemical classification of lipoprotein disorders. Schematically, lipoproteins have been described as globular or spherical units in which a nonpolar core lipid (consisting mainly of cholesterol esters and triglycerides) is surrounded by a layer containing phospholipids, apoproteins, and small amounts of unesterified cholesterol.
Lipoprotein consists of esterified and unesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and apolipoproteins. The proteins function as cofactors and ligands for receptors.
I need to make one distinction that will be very important later. Cholesterol, a steroid alcohol, can be “free” or “unesterified” (“UC” as we say, which stands for unesterified cholesterol) which is its active form, or it can exist in its “esterified” or storage form which we call a cholesterol ester (“CE”). The diagram below shows a free (i. e. , UC) molecule of cholesterol. An esterified variant (i.
The solubilization of cholesterol is very poor in the aqueous environment of the gut and its digestion and absorption is dependent on partitioning into bile micelles. Only nonesterified cholesterol can be incorporated into bile acid micelles and any esterified cholesterol in the diet (10–15% of total) must be hydrolyzed by cholesterol esterase. Mixed micelles thus contain bile acids, free cholesterol and PL, together with triglyceride, monoacylglyceride, fatty acids and lysophospholipids. These lipid complexes facilitate the transport of cholesterol across the unstirred water layer, which is a diffusional barrier at the intestinal lumen-enterocyte interface. The exact mechanism by which unesterified cholesterol.
e. surrounding/packaging all fatty acids being carried, enabling these fats to move around the body within the water outside cells. Each particle contains a single apolipoprotein B-100 molecule (Apo B-100, a protein that has 4536 amino acid residues and a mass of 514 kDa), along with 80 to 100 additional ancillary proteins. Each LDL has a highly hydrophobic core consisting of polyunsaturated fatty acid known as linoleate and hundreds to thousands (about 1500 commonly cited as an average) esterified and unesterified cholesterol.
Tissue choles- terol occurs primarily as free (unesterified) cholesterol, but is also bound covalently to fatty acids as cholesteryl esters and to certain proteins. Free cholesterol is an integral component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, and aldosterone, as well as bile acids. Physiology of Absorption and Metabolism Absorption After emulsification and bile acid micellar solubilization, dietary choles- terol, as well as cholesterol derived from hepatic secretion and sloughed intestinal epithelium, is absorbed in the proximal jejunum.