What does OAM stand for?
OAM stands for outer acrosomal membranes
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The same zona pellucida protein that serves as a sperm receptor also stimulates a series of events that lead to many areas of fusion between the plasma membrane and outer acrosomal membrane. Membrane fusion (actually an exocytosis) and vesiculation expose the acrosomal contents, leading to leakage of acrosomal enzymes from the sperm's head.
The sperm nucleus is covered by membrane bound secretory vesicle known as the acrosome which is a large, Golgi-derived lysosome-like organelle that overlies the nucleus in the apical region of the sperm head (Kaji and Kudo, 2004). The acrosome or its surrounding membranes contains a large array of hydrolytic enzymes including hyaluronidase, acrosin, serine protease, proacroson, phosphatase, arylsulphatase, colagenase, phospholipase C and β-galactosidase (reviewed in Elder and Dale, 2000). The spermatozoon interacts with the ZP by the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome. The specific binding of the spermatozoon to the ZP induces in the acrosome a calcium-mediated signal transduction process that leads to AR. The AR brings exposure of the inner acrosomal membrane to the outside by breaking the organelle and involves fusion of the outer acrosomal membrane.
The AR of mammalian spermatozoa involves multiple fusions between the outer acrosomal membrane and the overlying plasma membrane, followed by the exposure and release of intraacrosomal materials (1, 16). According to Nakanishi et al. (17), EGFP that is expressed by the spermatid stage of spermatogenesis and is destined to accumulate in the acrosome disappears from the sperm head at about 3 s after the onset of the AR in vitro.