What does M2 stand for?
M2 stands for guinea-pig atria
This definition appears very rarely
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(CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria.
The effects of K(ATP) channel blockers (glibenclamide, HMR 1883, HMR 1372) and openers (cromakalim, pinacidil, diazoxide) on the electrically-evoked (5 Hz) release of [(3)H]acetylcholine were studied in isolated guinea-pig atria and myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations which had been preincubated with [(3)H]choline. Atria: Cromakalim (0. 3 microM and 1 microM), pinacidil (10 microM) and diazoxide (30 microM) significantly reduced the stimulation-evoked release of [(3)H]acetylcholine.
g. fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and venlafaxin) are considered to be free from the cardiotoxicity, there are increasing number of case reports on various arrhythmias and syncope associated with the use of SSRIs including sertraline [32-35]. The study with spontaneously beating isolated guinea-pig atria.