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An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.  More formally, it is...
Psychology Definition of EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP): The electrical brain potential elicited by an event or stimulus.
Event-related potential; Electrocorticography (ECoG) Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Somatosensory evoked potential; Brainstem auditory evoked potential