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However, since isolation of primary trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells is often cumbersome, in recent years, several trophoblastic cell lines have been utilized as imperfect models for the invasive trophoblast(ic) cell. Some of the most popular cell lines used constitute the immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo, and the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG3. HTR8/SVneo cells are often considered a closer model of trophoblast cells, because the HTR8/SVneo cell lines were established by immortalizing a physiologic extravillous trophoblast cell via transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40) , while the JEG3 cell line was cloned from a primary choriocarcinoma strain .