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What does AD stand for?

AD stands for anoxic depolarization

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Details of the mechanism of damage from cerebral hypoxia, along with anoxic depolarization.
Anoxic depolarization time (latency from onset of ischemic to massive cell depolarization) (A) in the cortex and hippocampus during 2. 5 minutes (top) and 5 minutes (bottom) of ischemia; total depolarization periods (B) during 2. 5 minutes (top) and 5 minutes (bottom) of ischemia in the cortex and hippocampus. ***P<. 001, **P<. 01, two-factor ANOVA followed by Scheffé’s test.
In an animal model, Li et al21 showed that ADC losses could be reversed if occlusion had lasted <60 minutes. Beyond that time, however, lesions were irreversible. 20 The same authors subsequently reported that early recovery of ADC values after transient arterial occlusion did not exclude further sudden neuronal loss with a second abrupt fall-off of ADC values. 22,23 Using an ischemia/anoxia model, Harris et al24 showed that the ADC has to fall 10% to 25% before anoxic depolarization.