What does AR- stand for?
AR- stands for androgen receptor-negative
This definition appears rarely
Samples in periodicals archive:
Alimirah F, Panchanathan R, Chen J, Zhang X, Ho SM, Choubey D: Expression of androgen receptor is negatively regulated by p53. Neoplasia 2007, 9:1152-1159. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text.
The androgen receptor (AR) is widely expressed in breast cancers and has been proposed as a therapeutic target in estrogen receptor alpha (ER) negative breast cancers that retain AR. However, controversy exists regarding the role of AR, particularly in ER + tumors. Enzalutamide, an AR inhibitor that impairs nuclear localization of AR, was used to elucidate the role of AR in preclinical models of ER positive and negative breast cancer.
The canonical pathway in normal cells is used as an example for the signaling through TNF receptor. The activated IKK complex phosphorylates IκB that is then degraded by the proteasome. Upon degradation of IκB, the subunits of NF-κB are released and the complex is free to migrate to the nucleus. The canonical NF-κB pathway in prostate tumor cells is often constitutively activated, potentially due to increased levels of specific receptors like TNF receptors (TNFRs), which dramatically increase IκB degradation and the translocation of NF-κB dimers to the nucleus to activate κB-responsive genes involved in the development and progression of the tumor. Additionally, undetermined tyrosine kinase subpathways lead to NIK activation, which induces constitutive IKK activity and then constitutive NF-κB activation in androgen receptor-negative.