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What does A/E stand for?

A/E stands for and early diastole


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Other clinical signs may include distended neck veins, atrial arrhythmias, and the presence of third and fourth heart sounds. Diastolic dysfunction is difficult to differentiate from systolic dysfunction on the basis of history, physical examination, and electrocardiographic and chest radiographic findings. Therefore, objective diagnostic testing with cardiac catheterization, Doppler echocardiography, and possibly measurement of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide is often required. Three stages of diastolic dysfunction are recognized. Stage I is characterized by reduced left ventricular filling in early diastole.
The first phase begins with the P wave of the electrocardiogram, which represents atrial depolarization, and is the last phase of diastole. Phases 2-4 represent systole, and phases 5-7 represent early and mid-diastole. The last phase of the cardiac cycle ends with the appearance of the next P wave, which begins a new cycle.
Early diastole, i. e. , the E-wave in the E/A ratio, is a suction mechanism. [3] In late diastole, i. e. , the A-wave, as the left and right atria contract, the blood pressure in each atrium increases, forcing additional blood into the ventricles.
It has also been termed a ventricular gallop or a protodiastolic gallop because of its place in early diastole. It is a type of gallop rhythm by virtue of having an extra sound; the other gallop rhythm is called S4. The two are quite different, but they may sometimes occur together forming a quadruple gallop. If the heart rate is also very fast (tachycardia), it can become difficult to distinguish between S3 and S4 thus producing a single sound called a summation gallop.