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Nucleotide excision repair (NER) repairs damage to a nucleotide strand containing at least 2 bases and creating a structural distortion of the DNA. NER acts to repair single strand breaks in addition to serial damage from exogenous sources such as bulky DNA adducts and UV radiation. 26 The same pathway may be used to repair damage from oxidative stress. 27 Over 20 proteins are involved in the NER pathway in mammalian cells, including XPA, XPC-hHR23B, replication protein A (RPA), transcription factor TFIIH, XPB and XPD DNA helicases, ERCC1-XPF and XPG, Pold, Pole, PCNA, and replication factor C. 28 Overexpression of the excision repair cross-complementing.
The original method was by transfer of fragments of the human genome to ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive mutant cell lines derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells.  Reflecting this cross-species genetic complementation method, the gene was called “Excision repair cross-complementing 1”. Multiple independent complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were isolated, and this gene restored UV resistance to cells of complementation group 1.
5 110q0 147 -192 147h-45z"> , and p53 [70, 71]. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the main enzyme involved in catabolism of poly(ADP-ribose), cleaving it into free ADP-ribose monomers . PARP-1 itself is also known to be part of chromatin structure and involved in maintaining a compact chromatin structure, preventing inadvertent transcription from occurring . Unfolding of the compact chromatin structure allows DNA regulatory and repair processes access to the damaged sites as well as to replication and transcription initiation sites . PARP-1 has been reported to play a key role in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway used to remove bulky DNA adducts  and in the base excision repair (BER) pathway by interacting with BER protein XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing.
Boboila C, Oksenych V, Gostissa M, Wang JH, Zha S, Zhang Y, Chai H, Lee CS, Jankovic M, Saez LM, et al. : Robust chromosomal DNA repair via alternative end-joining in the absence of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012, 109:2473-2478. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text.
BACKGROUND: The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) in homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway plays a very important role in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Variations in the XRCC3 gene might lead to altered protein structure or function which may change DSBR efficiency and result in cancer. The XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with skin cancer susceptibility, yet the results of these previous results have been inconsistent or controversial.