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Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(NCO)2. Two of the six possible isomers are commercially important: 2,4-TDI (CAS: 584-84-9) and 2,6-TDI (CAS: 91-08-7). 2,4-TDI is produced in the pure state, but TDI is often marketed as 80/20 and 65/35 mixtures of the 2,4 and 2,6 isomers respectively. It is produced on a large scale, accounting for 34. 1% of the global isocyanate market in 2000, second only to MDI.
Apart from the acute or delayed symptoms that occur after acute exposure to toluene di-isocyanate vapour, repeated low-level exposure to toluene di- isocyanate may lead to hypersensitivity reactions due to a progressive sensitizing process (see section - toxic mechanisms). This may lead to acute and severe asthmatic attacks immediately or within a few hours after repeated toluene di-isocyanate exposure, or to recurrent episodes of influenza-like illness, associated with pneumonitis or active interstitial lung disease, often associated with eosinophilia and antibody formation (Fuchs & Valade, 1951; Holmqvist et al.
Technical toluene diisocyanate is a mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-isomers (80:20), TDI is a common name. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is suggested. Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor, or by an authorized person, should be considered. The symptoms of asthma often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort.
D5836 - 08(2013) Standard Test Method for Determination of 2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) in Workplace Atmospheres (1-2 PP Method) , 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, 2,6-toluene diisocyanate,1-(2-Pyridyl)piperazine, 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI, air monitoring, high-performance liquid chromatography, sampling and analysis, workplace atmospheres,
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical Hazard Information Profile on Toluene Diisocyanate. Prepared by Chemical Effects Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 1984.
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The purpose of this bulletin is to disseminate recent information on the potential carcinogenicity of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and toluenediamine (TDA) to humans. Recent studies of chronic effects in animals have produced evidence that cancer is associated with exposure to commercial-grade TDI (an 80:20 mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI) and to 2,4-TDA, a hydrolysis product of TDI. This bulletin describes the results and implications of those animal studies, presents the known human health effects of TDI and TDA, and suggests guidelines for minimizing occupational exposures.