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Another scheme which is sometimes used, especially in brain scanning or where images are needed very rapidly, is called echo-planar imaging (EPI): In this case, each RF excitation is followed by a train of gradient echoes with different spatial encoding. Multiplexed-EPI is even faster, e. g. , for whole brain fMRI or diffusion MRI.
Echo planar imaging is performed using a pulse sequence in which multiple echoes of different phase steps are acquired using rephasing gradients instead of repeated 180o RF pulses following the 90°/180° in a spin-echo sequence. This is accomplished by rapidly reversing the readout or frequency- encoding gradient. This switching or reversal may also be done in a sinusoidal fashion. Echo planar sequences may use entirely gradient echos or may combine a spin echo with the train of gradient echos as illustrated in the diagram to the right.
e-mri, e-learning, echo, planar, imaging, EPI, E.P.I
As long as the precessing magnetisation in the xy plane has not decayed away, it can be sampled (the frequency encoding gradient will need to be switched on, of course). Echo planar imaging (EPI) can the thought of as an "add on" to a pulse sequence, to acquire more signals from each excitation pulse. There are some disadvantages to EPI (see Further Reading list).
Principles and applications of echo-planar imaging: a review for the general radiologist. Poustchi-Amin M1, Mirowitz SA, Brown JJ, McKinstry RC, Li T.
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