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1% to 0. 2%. 5 Cathine has approximately 1/ 10 the stimulant activity of d-amphetamine. It decreased food intake and increased locomotor activity in rat studies. The compound has been confused with d,1-norephedrine in the literature, although the 2 compounds differ in pharmacologic properties. 6 Cathinone (alpha-aminopropiophenone) has been isolated in variable quantities from fresh leaves. This compound is a more powerful stimulant than cathine and generally considered to be the most important component; however, it is unstable in the presence of oxygen, and decomposes within a few days of picking or if the plant is dried, 7 making fresh leaves the best source of cathinone.
Small amounts of ephedrine are slowly metabolized in the liver; metabolites have been identified as p-hydroxyephedrine, p-hydroxynorephedrine, norephedrine, and conjugates of these compounds. The drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine, mostly as unchanged ephedrine. Rate of urinary excretion is dependent on urinary pH. Percentage excretion of the drug and its metabolites is increased by acidification of the urine.
 After this, the molecule can either go through a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway. The beta-oxidative pathway produces benzoyl-CoA while the non-beta-oxidative pathway produces benzoic acid.  Both of these molecules can be converted to 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione by a condensation reaction catalyzed by a ThDP-dependent enzyme (Thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme) with pyruvate and producing CO2.  1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione goes though a transaminase reaction to replace a ketone with an ammonia group to form (S)-cathinone. (S)-Cathinone can then undergo a reduction reaction to produce the less potent but structurally similar cathine or norephedrine.
[sources 9] Amphetamine has a variety of excreted metabolic products, including 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetone, benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone.  Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine.  The main metabolic pathways involve aromatic para-hydroxylation, aliphatic alpha- and beta-hydroxylation, N-oxidation, N-dealkylation, and deamination.