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Often, focused high energy electrons from one of the electron guns or infrared light from heater lamps is used to preheat the substrate. Heating of the substrate allows for increased adatom - substrate and adatom - film diffusion by giving the adatoms sufficient energy to overcome kinetic barriers. If a rough film, such as metallic nanorods, is desired substrate cooling with water or liquid nitrogen may be employed to reduce diffusion lifetime, positively bolstering surface kinetic barriers. To further enhance film roughness, the substrate may be mounted at a steep angle with respect to the flux to achieve geometric shadowing where incoming line of sight flux lands onto only higher parts of the developing film. This method is known as glancing angle deposition (GLAD) or oblique angle deposition.