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Amacrine cells operate at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells form synapses. There are at least 33 different subtypes of amacrine cells based just on their dendrite morphology and stratification. Like horizontal cells, amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells affect the output from bipolar cells, and are often more specialized.
Amacrine cells are interneurons located in the most inner layer of the inner nuclear layer of the vertebrate retina. They are synaptically active in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer, that influences retinal signal processing in response to visual stimuli at the level of contact between the bipolar and ganglion cells. Amacrine cells are so named because they are nerve cells thought to lack an axon (Santiago Ram?n y Cajal, 1892) but today we know that certain large field amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina can have long 'axon-like' processes, which probably function as true axons. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells. They are classified by the width of their receptive field, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. Most are inhibitory using either GABA or glycine as neurotransmitters. Functionally, they are responsible for complex processing of the retinal image, specifically adjusting image brightness and, by integrating sequential activation of neurons, detecting motion.
2007) although Golgi techniques suggested the major part of the dendritic field was running down to stratum 3 of the IPL where it branched into a spine-bearing radiate overlapping dendritic tree of circa 400 um diameter (Fig. 44). From the dendrites fine axons emerge bearing varicosities and radiate out for up to 4 mm of coverage of the IPL (Fig. 44). Neurobiotin injection shows that A1 cells are extensively coupled to neighboring A1 amacrine cells, other amacrine cell types, and to a ganglion cell type. This amacrine cell.
Amacrine cells perform where the second synaptic retianl layer where ganglion cells and bipolar cells form a synapse. There are close to 50 types of amacrine cells, many of which do not have axons. An amacrine cell is a horizontal cell and it works laterally to interact with the output of the bipolar cell. Usually, their job is more specialized. A specific amacrine cell interacts with a specific bipolar cell, and usually have a specific neurotransmitter.