Metzler, M. (2007), Hormonally Active Compounds in Food. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. , 51: 763. doi: 10.
Lead exposure has been significantly associated with delayed puberty; while estrogenic PCBs, polybrominated biphenyls, DDT, and DDE have been associated with precocious puberty. Alterations in menstrual cycle characteristics have been observed, including shortened cycles (DDT, DDE, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), longer cycles (pesticides, dioxin, PCBs), and irregular cycles (PCBs, PCDFs). Among women, several studies have found significant associations between dioxins, PCBs, and endometriosis, with evidence that anti-estrogenic PCBs may be of importance. Among males, it has been hypothesized that hormonally active compounds.