This definition appears somewhat frequently
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A major complication rate of 29% following embolization has been reported in patients with large volume disease [23, 31]. However, hepatic arterial embolization can still be of benefit in this group of patients. Kamat et al. demonstrated a median overall survival of 17. 9 months and a PFS of 9. 2 months using either TAE or TACE in patients with greater than 75% liver involvement. While only 44% of the patients demonstrated radiologic response, 65% showed improvement of symptoms, indicating that symptom relief can be used to guide therapy irrespective of radiologic findings .
Hepatic arterial embolization using a percutaneous Seldinger technique under radiological control was developed for metastatic endocrine tumors in the early 1970s. Indications for TAE generally include unresectability with symptoms related to tumor bulk, excessive hormone production, and rapid progression of liver disease. TAE has been shown to improve biophysical markers, palliate symptoms and reduce tumor burden at the radiological evaluation [20, 35].