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What does 3-MG stand for?

3-MG stands for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose

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3-O-Methyl-D-Glucose is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase.
In purified rat β-cells, the intracellular concentration of glucose or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose equilibrates within 2 min with the extracellular levels, and, like in intact islets, the rate of glucose oxidation displays a sigmoidal dose-response curve for glucose. In contrast, even after 5 min of incubation, the apparent distribution space of D-glucose or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose in a-cells remains much lower than the intracellular volume.
Uptake Studies—Transport of radiolabeled ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (deoxyglucose), or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (methylglucose) was performed as described (19–20). NaCl was replaced with choline chloride (Na+-free buffer) to measure the effect of Na+ on ascorbate transport. Ascorbic acid uptake assays contained 0. 1–0. 4 µCi of l-[14C]ascorbic acid (specific activity 8. 2 mCi/mmol, PerkinElmer Life Sciences), and a final concentration of 0.
Knight, T. , S. Sansom, and E. J. Weinman. Renal tubular absorption of d‐glucose, 3‐O‐methyl‐d‐glucose and 2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose. Am. J. Physiol. 233 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 2): F274–F277, 1977.
SGLT2???a??????????SGLT2??????SLC5A2 ?????Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-a (HNF4A) ??????????? HNF4A?SLC5A???????????????????????2????????????????? (downregulate)?????2????????????????????????????????? a??????????6mM???????1mM??????????????????????15mM???????????????????????? 1mM????????????3-O-methyl-D-glucose.
To assess that the volunteers had normal intestinal permeability, an iso-osmolar test sugar solution (300 mmol/kg) containing 0. 5 g D-xylose, 1 g L-rhamnose, 0. 2 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and 5 g lactulose was prepared and 100 ml administered orally per subject. Gelatine capsules, containing 50 mg pharmaceutical/food grade anatase TiO2 (Kronos® 1171; reported manufacturer’s d50 of 260 nm, Fagron UK,) were manufactured by St Thomas’ Hospital Pharmacy (London).