What does PAPC stand for?
PAPC stands for 1-palmitoyl,2-arachidonoyl PC
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Hence there is a probability of the uncontrolled generation of OxPLs during oxidative stress. Several evidences suggest that OxPLs are formed from Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) at the sn-2 position (Bochkov et al 2007, Podrez et al 2002). Bioactive oxidized phospholipids may contain fragmentation products of PUFA, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and 9-keto-10-dodecendioic acid ester of 2-lyso-phosphatidyl choline (KOdiA-PC); prostaglandins, such as 15 deoxy-delta 12, 14 prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5,6-epoxyisoprostane E2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoryl choline (PEIPC); and levuglandins. These molecules exhibit different biological activities. Chromatographic separation of many products formed by oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl.
The plaque is an environment with a strong skew towards Th1 lymphocytic responses, resulting in high levels of IFN? [33,34] which could in theory privilege M1-type macrophage polarisation. However, studies thus far have demonstrated macrophage heterogeneity within atherosclerosis, supporting that both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions. In an ApoE-/- murine model of atherosclerosis, early lesions were seen to be infiltrated by M2 (arginase I+) macrophages . As lesions progressed a phenotypic switch was observed, with an eventual predominance of M1 (arginase II+) macrophages. Upon exposure to the oxidised phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl.
Oxidized lipoproteins can trigger complement activation . CD36 is the principal receptor implicated in uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and is expressed by the RPE. CD36 ligands also promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer . Uptake of oxidized LDL by the RPE is CD36 dependent and appears to bind to oxidized PAPC (1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl.
57 - X. Wang, H. Ushio, T. Ohshima, 2003Distributions of Hydroperoxide Positional Isomers Generated by Oxidation of 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl.