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1,2-sn-Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a family of lipidic molecular species varying in the lengths and desaturation levels of acyl groups esterified at positions sn-1 and sn-2 of the glycerol backbone. In plant cells, DAG originating from plastid and from extraplastidial membranes have distinct molecular signatures, C18/C16 and C18/C18 structures, respectively. Under normal conditions, DAG is consumed nearly as fast as it is produced and is therefore a transient compound in the cell.
Reddy, B. S. , Simi, B. , Patel, N. , Aliaga, C. and Rao, C. V. (1996) Effect of amount and types of dietary fat on intestinal bacterial 7α-dexydroxylase and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and colonic mucosal diacylglycerol kinase and PKC activities during different stages of colon tumor promotion. Cancer Res 56, 2314–2320.
It has been reported that the sum of 1,2-sn-DAG and 2,3-sn-DAG increased from 300 to 1800 nmol/g in rat liver after one week of choline deficiency . Unfortunately, at the time of these investigations, no convenient technique existed to measure 1,2-sn-DAG specifically. Re- cent studies indicate that the physiological state of the cell determines the ratio of 1,2-sn-DAG to 2,3-sn-DAG. For example in the parotid, 2,3-sn- DAG constituted approximately 8070 of DAG at rest, and stimulation of H-receptors specifically in- creased the formation of 2,3-sn-DAG, such that it constituted over 30o70 of the total DAG . This 2,3-sn-DAG was ineffective in stimulating PKC ac- Table 2 Effect of choline deficiency on 1,2-sn-diacylglycerol.
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a second messenger for protein kinase C, an enzyme with a key role in cellular signal transduction and growth control. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that DAG is produced by intestinal microflora. Bacterial DAG production is increased by bile acids and phospholipids, both of which may be precipitated by calcium. We have demonstrated that fecal total lipids, bile acids, and rectal epithelial proliferation are increased in intestinal bypass (IB) patients.