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It consists of ten exons, the three 5' exons residing in the pseudoautosomal region and the remaining exons within the X-specific end. The latter region is not affected by chromosome inactivation. An apparently duplicated gene, CD99 (MIC2), resides in close proximity within the pseudoautosomal region. Its product, a glycoprotein, CD99 (also known as MIC2,12E7 antigen) bears 48% sequence homology to the XG product. A homologue of XG and MIC genes, XGPY pseudogene.
transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene.
This is an example of convergent evolution. The male determining sex chromosomes all accumulate similar properties so that it appears there is a universal pathway. The mammalian Y which probably evolved from the X has also acquired genes from other chromosomes especially those that enhance male fertility. Currently, there are twenty known single genes. More are known but many are multiple, tandemly repeated copies and many are pseudogene.
Rodriguez C, Grosgeorge J, Nguyen VC, Gaudray P, Theillet C (1995). "Human gp130 transducer chain gene (IL6ST) is localized to chromosome band 5q11 and possesses a pseudogene on chromosome band 17p11". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 70 (1–2): 64–7. doi:10. 1159/000133993.
Shang JJ, Tao Y, Chen XW, Zou Y, Lei CL, Wang J, Li XB, Zhao XF, Zhang MJ, Lu ZK, Xu JC, Cheng ZK, Wan JM, Zhu LH (2009). Identification of a new rice blast resistance gene, Pid3, by genome wide comparison of paired-nucleotide-bindingsite–Leucine-rich repeat genes and their pseudogene alleles between the two sequenced rice genomes. Genetics 182: 1303-1311.
The annotated genes at the extreme ends of the 47 Mb XAR are PLCXD1 (cU136G2. 1 in Supplementary Fig. 1) near Xpter, and RGN in Xp11. 3. We also found an unprocessed RGN pseudogene (RGN2P) at Xpter, distal to PLCXD1. The orthologues for these three loci are adjacent on chicken chromosome 1, in the order (tel)–RGN–RGN2–PLCXD1–(cen) (Fig. 3b). The generation of these two different gene orders from a common ancestral sequence would require a minimum of two rearrangements as well as the translocation that added the XAR.
The encoded protein is found at the centrosome in interphase cells and at the spindle poles in mitosis. This gene may play a role in tumor development and progression. A processed pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 1, and an unprocessed pseudogene has been found on chromosome 10. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
Tam OH, Aravin AA, Stein P, Girard A, Murchison EP, Cheloufi S, Hodges E, Anger M, Sachidanandam R, Schultz RM, et al. : Pseudogene-derived small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in mouse oocytes. Nature 2008, 453(7194):534-538. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text.